A single ion has an influence on millions of water molecules, i.e. 10,000 times more than previously thought. Source: LPB/EPFL
Water is simple and complex at the same time. A single water molecule (H20) is made up of only 3 atoms. Yet the collective behavior of water molecules is unique and continues to amaze us. Water molecules are linked together by hydrogen bonds that break and form several thousands of billions of times per second. These bonds provide water with unique and unusual properties. Living organisms contain around 60 percent water and salt. Deciphering the interactions among water, salt and ions is thus fundamentally important for understanding life.
Researchers at EPFL’s Laboratory for fundamental BioPhotonics, led by Sylvie Roke, have probed the influence of ions on the structure of water with unprecedentedly sensitive measurements. According to their multi-scale analyses, a single ion has an influence on millions of water molecules, i.e. 10,000 times more than previously thought. In an article appearing in Science Advances, they explain how a single ion can “twist” the bonds of several million water molecules over a distance exceeding 20 nanometers causing the liquid to become “stiffer”. “Until now it was not possible to see beyond a hundred molecules. Our measurements show that water is much more sensitive to ions than we thought,” said Roke, who was also surprised by this result.
Water molecules are made up of one negatively charged oxygen atom and two positively charged hydrogen atoms. The Mickey Mouse-shaped molecule therefore does not have the same charge at its center as at its extremities. When an ion, which is an electrically charged atom, comes into contact with water, the network of hydrogen bonds is perturbed. The perturbation spreads over millions of surrounding molecules, causing water molecules to align preferentially in a specific direction. This can be thought of as water molecules “stiffening their network” between the various ions.
Water’s behavior was tested with three different approaches: ultrafast optical measurements, which revealed the arrangement of molecules on the nanometric scale; a computer simulation on the atomic scale; and measurement of the water’s surface structure and tension, which was done at the macroscopic level. “For the last method, we simply dipped a thin metal plate into the water and pulled gently using a tensiometer to determine the water’s resistance,” said Roke. “We observed that the presence of a few ions makes it easier to pull the plate out, that is, ions reduce the surface resistance of water. This strange effect had already been observed in 1941, but it remained unexplained until now. Through our multiscale analysis we were able to link it to ion-induced stiffening of the bulk hydrogen bond network: a stiffer bulk results in a comparatively more flexible surface.”
The researchers carried out the same experiment with 21 different salts: they all affected water in the same way. Then they studied the effect of ions on heavy water, whose hydrogen atoms are heavy isotopes (with an additional neutron in the nucleus). This liquid is almost indistinguishable from normal water. But here the properties are very different. To perturb the heavy water in the same way, it required a concentration of ions six times higher. Further evidence of the uniqueness of water.
No link with water memory.
Roke and her team are aware that it might be tempting to link these stunning results to all sorts of controversial beliefs about water. They are however careful to distance themselves from any far-fetched interpretation. “Our research has nothing to do with water memory or homeopathy,” she said. “We collect scientific data, which are all verifiable. «To prove the role of water in homeopathy, another million-billion-billion water molecules would have to be affected to even come close, and even then we are not certain.
The new discovery about the behavior of water will be useful in fundamental research, and in other areas too. The interaction between water and ions is omnipresent in biological processes related to enzymes, ion channels and protein folding. Every new piece of knowledge gives greater insight into how life works.
Due to its capacity to dissolve numerous substances in great amounts, pure water almost does not exist in nature. We have to create pure water. By the process of distillation.
Distillation has the broadest removal capabilities of any single form of water purification. Water is boiled and undergoes phase changes during the distillation process, changing from a liquid to vapor and back to liquid. It is the change from liquid to vapor that separates the water (in various degrees) from many dissolved impurities, such as ions, organic contaminants with low boiling points (<100ºC / 212ºF), bacteria, pyrogens, and particulates.Water is the most abundant substance in the human body. It is an essential nutrient. Every cell, tissue, organ, and life-sustaining body process needs water to function. We cannot live without water for more than a few days. By comparison, we can live without food for weeks.
The average adult body is 55-75% water. Blood is 83% water, lean muscle is 73% water, body fat is 25% water, and bone is 22% water.
The percentage of body weight that is water gradually declines as we age. So how much water you have in your body partly depends on how old you are now.
Been meaning to post here for a while and this recent activity on this thread reminded me. I’ve had questions about my 50ppm being a light yellow color. I had a chance to discuss with Arnold (Abeland) and his thought was the DI water I was using was the issue. I did some work at a contract packaging plant that makes and packs cosmetics. They have an RO/DI plant in the facility. I got a few gallons of their ultra pure DI water and Voila! No more colored 50ppm! Crystal clear end product. Now I’m on the hunt to find a commercial source of high quality DI.
I thought others might benefit from this experience.
I just purchased a home water distiller from Durastill.com. It was $825 & comes with 4 @ 1 gallon glass jugs. It will produce several gallons a day. I have not used it yet. I will post results after a couple of runs. They say to make a first run & discard it, then make your first useable run.
I thought others might benefit from this experience.
Check with your local KROGER store or their affiliates: RALPH’S, SMITH’s, FRY’s, KING Super ,…
I have found Kroger, at least in Cen. KY, test out the best in this region. Much better that Wally World’s around here.
ALDI has tested well around here too.
DYODD / Best of LuckYeah, I make mine with Kroger Distilled, and is clear as can be,
I buy the same Kroger distilled water for my business, to steam and press wedding gowns. 15 years and not one stain.